Helloindonesia.id – This bird has other names such as Hornbills, Julang, Year Birds, and also Cages. In English it is called Hornbill which is a type of bird that has a beak shaped like a cow’s horn but without a circle. Generally the hornbills are brightly colored.
Hornbills are included in the family Bucerotidae which has 57 species. Nine of them are endemic species from southern Africa. Hornbill food in the form of fruits, bats, rats, snakes, lizards, and several types of insects. In general, hornbills can be known by looking at the characteristics found in them, namely as follows:
Large beak with an additional upper structure called a casque. In Indonesia, the body size is between 40-150 cm. The fur on his body is dominated by black and white on his tail. While on the neck and to vary. The horns of the hornbill wing are unique and distinctive.
The distinctive “calling” sound of a hornbill depends on the type. There are similar sounds of people laughing out loud and heard up to a distance of 3 km away.
There are approximately 57 species of hornbills which are spread throughout the world. Starting from sub-Saharan Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Most live in tropical rainforests and some live in arid regions of Africa. For Indonesia alone, there are 13 species of hornbills that live in tropical rainforests, three of which are endemic.
The majority of hornbills are found in lowland forests or hilly forests between 0-1000 m above sea level. In mountainous areas of more than 1000 m above sea level, hornbills are hard to find. This bird lives in Sumatra with a total of 9 types of Borneo as many as 8 species. Therefore, many species of hornbills in Indonesia make the homeland one of the conservative areas of hornbills in the world.
Food that is very important for this bird is the fruiting banyan fruit throughout the year. In addition, fruits such as forest nutmeg and walnuts are also a food for these birds. When the availability of fruit is thinning, hornbills can eat substitute foods in the form of invertebrates or small vertebrates that live in the forest to meet their needs.
An hornbill can fly up to 200-1200 m / hour. Plus its large stomach capacity, this bird is able to spread the seeds of the fruit it eats into the entire forest so that it can maintain the dynamics of the tropical rainforest. The existence of hornbills is highly respected by the Dayak tribe. Almost all parts of the bird’s body are used as symbols and symbols of glory. Even they saved him and considered it as the incarnation of the Bird Commander.
In addition, this bird is also considered a symbol of peace and unity. We can easily find things related to these birds in every room of the Dayak community. For example in statues, clothing, houses, village halls, paintings, gates, monuments, and even tombs. An ideal leader figure is also symbolized by hornbills. This was because the bird flew and perched on tall trees and mountains, its fur was beautifully patterned, and its voice was heard throughout the forest.
Its thick wings symbolize a leader who protects his people. His loud voice describes the command of a leader who is always heard and obeyed by his people. Its long tail is a symbol of the welfare and prosperity of its people. Overall, hornbills are ideal to describe the character of a leader who loves and is loved by all his people.
The beak of this bird is also a symbol of the Dayak war leaders. However, because the Dayaks greatly saved this bird, the Dayaks only took the half-lives of Enggang who had died. Feathers on black and white hornbills are used in traditional Kalimantan clothing for dancing during traditional ceremonies. Hornbill fur is also used as a headdress and fingers.
This hornbill, which can reach 150 cm in length, also symbolizes loyalty and harmony. This is reflected in Enggang’s very unique way of life, namely he lives in pairs and cannot live without his partner. Female hornbills generally lay eggs in the holes of a tree. The nests will then be covered with mud and leave a small hole. When incubating the egg, the female only lives in the nest. When the egg incubation lasts for about 4 months, the male hornbill will always feed the female hornbill through the hole until the egg hatches.