Ronggeng Gunung, Traditional Arts Community of Ciamis-Pangandaran

Helloindonesia.id – Ronggeng Gunung art grows and develops in Ciamis and Pangandaran, West Java. In the past, this traditional dance was performed to welcome guests visiting the Galuh Kingdom.

After the collapse of the Kingdom of Galuh, the art of mountain ronggeng changed its function, which was held on various celebratory occasions, including at wedding parties, circumcisions of children, harvest parties, and on welcoming guests.

Ronggeng mountain including ancient art (buhun). The presentation is fairly minimalist. However, this art has a characteristic that distinguishes it from the majority of other Sundanese dances. While the majority of other Sundanese dances provide the same portion of hand and foot movements, the mountain ronggeng places more emphasis on foot movements.

Ronggeng gunung art itself is no different from ronggeng in general, which is a traditional dance performance featuring a dancer or more, with musical accompaniment and songs performed by a kawih interpreter or sinden.

Especially for ronggeng gunung, ronggeng is only one person who acts as a dancer and interpreter, and is accompanied only by three nayaga people. The show was then equipped with male dancers who emerged from the audience, or known as pamogaran.

Ronggeng

Ronggeng dance that develops in Java, especially in Pasundan. In addition to Java, ronggeng dance can also be found in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula.

The term ronggeng comes from the Sanskrit renggana which means the idol woman. This idol woman dances accompanied by a set of traditional musical instruments. The dance acts as an entertainer for royal guests.

Ronggeng art is popular since colonial times. At that time, Ronggeng was a traveling performance performed by women from the mountains. Ronggeng arts groups appear in official shows. They also often appear in the homes of indigenous nobles and colonial rulers.

History

The birth and development of ronggeng gunung art is closely related to the history of the kingdom of Galuh in the Ciamis and Pangandaran regions. There are at least four versions of the story behind the birth of Ronggeng Gunung, but the most popular are the stories of Anggalarang and Dewi Siti Samboja.

It is said that Anggalarang, the son of Prabu Haur Kuning from the Kingdom of Galuh, wants to establish a kingdom in the Pananjung area (now a Pananjung Nature Reserve). Hearing his son’s intention, Prabu Haur Kuning reminded that the area was dangerous because it was close to the beach that pirates often stop by. However, Anggalarang insisted.

Shortly after the kingdom stood up, concerns Prabu Haur Kuning took place. Pirates led by Kalasamudra attacked the kingdom founded by Anggalarang. In an unbalanced battle, Anggalarang was killed. While his wife managed to escape.

On the run, along with several of his followers, Dewi Siti Samboja disguised himself as a mountain ronggeng. He changed his name to Dewi Rengganis. They move from one place to another.

Dewi Rengganis traveled from one place to another. However, the length of his journey did not reduce his pain for the tragic death of her husband in the hands of the pirates.

Dewi Rengganis then intends to take revenge. In disguise, he hunted down Kalasamudra. His intention was accomplished when in a performance, he was able to provoke his enemies to join and drift into the dance. When Kalasamudra was off guard, Dewi Rengganis stabbed her with a knife to death.

Traditional ceremonies

In traditional Sundanese society, the mountain ronggeng show is held in a series of rice harvesting parties. Dewi Siti Samboja or Dewi Rengganis is described as similar to Dewi Sri Pohaci in Sundanese mythology in farming activities.

At harvest party ceremonies, the Gunung Rong performance begins with offerings. The contents of the offerings include seven kinds and seven colors of pastries, golden banana, a mirror, comb, and cigarettes.

This art is also performed in other traditional ceremonies, such as marriage, circumcision, and reception. However, even though it can still be found, traditional art from Tatar Pasundan is quiet and interested and no one continues it.

Various efforts to maintain it have been carried out. One of them is by making various changes, both in terms of their functions in society and in the form of their performances. But this effort is not enough to raise the popularity of Ronggeng Gunung.

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